The ‘Finnification’ of The Sami People: A Silenced History

by Jesse Hirvelä

The Sami are arguably the only indigenous people within the European Union. They are concentrated in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. They share a common language and distinguishable traditions dating back thousands of years. The Sami heritage  became threatened when Finland started rebuilding herself after the Second World War with the ambition of forging “one people, one language, one nation.” Lapland, the northern part of Finland, an extremely rural part of the country, was in dire need of modernisation in order to achieve this goal. These Finnish policies had a direct impact on the Sami communities in the country, as families were converted to a Finnish culture, language, and lifestyle. The Sami were seen as a barbaric people at the time, and many were forced to abandon their old traditional ways of life. This has been a hushed topic in Finland for decades, but it has recently started to gain more public interest.

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Distribution of Sami people © http://www.galdu.org

A documentary called “Suomi tuli Saamenmaahan”(‘When Finland came to Samiland’), released in 2011, included interviews and stories of people who went through the process of changing their identities. Sami children had to face a completely new environment, while many were bullied by their Finnish classmates. The collision with Finish ways of life was a shock for the entire Sami culture, and the language was not given any rights in the country; Sami children were sent to boarding schools and were not permitted to speak their mother tongue even during their spare time. Many Sami people felt they were disrespected by the Finns.

In July of this year, the “Helsingin sanomat” newspaper released a story about the Sami families who took part in human exhibitions around Europe during late 19th and early 20th centuries. Very few documents related to these events have survived, but it is known for example that one of the exhibitions took place in the Hamburg zoo in Germany.Professor Veli-Pekka Lehtola (a specialist on Sami culture and history) states that even though colonialism and racism were strong concepts at that time, the Sami families volunteered to leave, receiving money and interesting experiences in return. The exhibitions were criticised, at least to some extent, but shows kept on going right until Hitler took his place as chancellor of Germany in 1933.

Today, Sami traditions are under a threat of extinction, but various methods have been employed to keep their culture alive. For example, there are specialised schools teaching Sami language for children and anyone interested. The movement for Sami education started in the 1970s and has grown slowly but steadily ever since. People with Sami family roots are still interested in the Sami culture and their origins. However, many families have migrated southwards, becoming more urbanised and losing parts of their Sami identity on the way. Over half of the children speaking the Sami language live outside the original Sami living area, and teaching the language in southern Finland is rather rare. It will be impossible to revive the language if it is not taught properly through education and gets completely lost by a single generation.

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Woman in traditional Sami dress © http://transun.wordpress.com/

Critics have raised a question: Finland apologised for its mistakes concerning the Second World War, but will she apologise for the fate of the Sami people? In April 2012 Finland’s new president Sauli Niinistö faced issues concerning the Sami people and the principles of the ILO convention, which demands for identification of indigenous peoples and their lands. The agreement has not been ratified in Finland despite years of struggling as the rights of Sami landownership remain unclear. The intentions of strengthening Sami rights have given rise to anti-Sami movements, while president Niinistö points out that the ILO agreement is hard to be followed in today’s Finland as it was designed for helping former colonies, and that the process is going to be extremely slow.

For more information on the Sami people see The Resource Centre for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples at http://www.galdu.org/

6 comments

  1. This post was really interesting! I just wrote a presentation about the mythology of the Sami, and the same idea was present there as well, as their habits and religion was destroyed in many parts..

    1. Thanks for dropping by, we’ll pass on to our guest author that you enjoyed his article!

  2. Why are you lying about the Sami, a people that have never existen until it was invented after the second world.

    Why do you not recognise other “sami” people, that NEVER have considered them selfs as Sami, do you understand this or not. I am Skoltic from the Norwegian/Russian land, and have lived there for eons and YOU dont recognise this at all, why.

    And WHY is the use of this political gain so controversal, and in this YOU dont have a clue do you, about the lies the so caled Samis are been taken in, in the SørVaranger as an ex.
    The SAMI ex president havent a single meber of his family from the North or in the Finnmark region and STILL he is regaded as a Sami, do you underdtand this if not I dont care, because I dont have to lie, YOU do and the so caled Sami that is currently trying to ocupy the North of Finnland the region of Inari/Ivalo have NEVER been Sami, but have two other people in its region of witch YOu dont mention, why.

    No its obvious you arent talking about the truth about the so caled Sami.
    I am a fullblown Nourtelazak and I am shure you dont have a clue about this name.
    But now they have been forcefully located in the Inari/Ivalo region from its previous land, Russia and Norway.

    I will not rest before YOU stopp lying.

    peace

    1. peace, we will make sure to pass your comments to the author of the post

    2. Mr.minister · · Reply

      Hey there, I am a REAL sami from the coast of northern Norway, and to say that the sami does not exist, is just a big fat lie. Sure you may be whatever you want to be, but the sami does in fact exist, even if the Finnish tried to colonize the sami. There is a sami language that is related to the Finnish language, but they are far from close enough to understand each other, the sami also is different genetically. And Finnmark in Norway did not become a part of Norway until the 10th century or even later, before that, it was all sami.

      1. In reality things are never that simple. This story of indigenous Sami people and foreign intruders is false or at least its not the whole truth. Sami people are not really more indigenous than Finns. They are EUs only nomadic people, but saying they are only “indigenous people in EU” is wrong. Before modern times people in the north did not consider them self Sami or Finn like we think nowadays. There was lot of mixing. Many Samis have Finnish, Swedish or Norwegian “blood” and vice versa. In many cases it was more about lifestyle. We dont know who was first and where and it should not even matter. People are people. Sami identity just like Finnish identity is modern creation. There were different cultureS and languageS in the north, but in many ways one common Sami identity was created in modern times. Im not happy with this “us” against “them” mentality. People of course have a right for their culture and language. Yes there was dark period in Finnish-Sami relations, but that is not the whole truth.

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